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The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: An interdisciplinary perspective

David Parastatidis's picture
Submitted by David Parastatidis on November 19, 2018 - 5:50pm
In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners.

The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and NatureBased Defences

David Parastatidis's picture
Submitted by David Parastatidis on November 19, 2018 - 5:46pm
"There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding worldwide for nature-based defences–i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose.

Nature-based forest management—Where are we going?: Elaborating forest development types in and with practice

David Parastatidis's picture
Submitted by David Parastatidis on November 19, 2018 - 5:43pm
The decision to transform “classical” age-class forests (plantation forestry) into more nature-based forest stand structures implied a paradigmatic shift in the Danish state owned forests and their management. In order to facilitate this process of change, scientists were employed by the Danish Forest and Nature Agency which enabled interactions with the professionals in the forest over a nearly 2-year period.

Solutions inspired by nature

Submitted by Maria Lilli on September 12, 2018 - 3:30pm
Nature-based solutions (NBS) aim to help societies to address a variety of environmental, social and economic challenges in sustainable ways. They are actions which are inspired by and supported by nature. Some involve using and enhancing existing natural solutions to challenges, while others are exploring more novel solutions, for example, based on how non-human organisms and communities cope with environmental extremes.

Integrating the ecosystem-based approach into municipal climate adaptation strategies: The case of Germany

Submitted by Stavros Stagakis on June 20, 2018 - 12:24pm
Climate change impacts are a key challenge for sustainable urban development. To address this challenge, ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), i.e., the use of ecosystem services and biodiversity to help people adapt to climate change, is increasingly being considered as an alternative or complement to traditional, engineering-based approaches (increasingly also known as nature-based solutions). However, little research on ecosystem-based adaptation has been carried out in urban areas, and empirical evidence of its effectiveness and uptake in strategic adaptation planning is particularly lacking.

Regulating urban surface runoff through nature-based solutions – An assessment at the micro-scale

Submitted by Stavros Stagakis on June 20, 2018 - 12:23pm
Urban development leads to changes of surface cover that disrupt the hydrological cycle in cities. In particular, impermeable surfaces and the removal of vegetation reduce the ability to intercept, store and infiltrate rainwater. Consequently, the volume of stormwater runoff and the risk of local flooding rises. This is further amplified by the anticipated effects of climate change leading to an increased frequency and intensity of heavy rain events. Hence, urban adaptation strategies are required to mitigate those impacts.

What causal drivers influence carbon storage in Shanghai, China's urban and peri-urban forests?

Submitted by Stavros Stagakis on June 20, 2018 - 12:22pm
Studies have documented many biophysical factors that are correlated with urban forest carbon storage. This urban forest function is also increasingly being promoted as a nature-based solution for cities. While urbanization affects both the structure and function of urban forest ecosystems, quantitative analyses of specific casual drivers of carbon storage in urban versus periurban forests are scarce.

Inclusive nature-based solutions for urban regeneration in a natural disaster vulnerability context: A case study of Chongqing, China

Submitted by Stavros Stagakis on June 20, 2018 - 12:21pm
Currently, economic development has become a dominant factor in the promotion of urban regeneration in China. This means that decision makers often overlook the impacts on the natural environment when planning urban regeneration within a region. To properly face such challenges and others that may arise, a strategy relying on Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) can enhance the physical and ecological environment of a city, while ensuring greater resilience to natural disasters, and the use of fewer resources.

Comprehending the multiple ‘values’ of green infrastructure – Valuing nature-based solutions for urban water management from multiple perspectives

Submitted by Stavros Stagakis on June 20, 2018 - 12:20pm
The valuation of urban water management practices and associated nature-based solutions (NBS) is highly contested, and is becoming increasingly important to cities seeking to increase their resilience to climate change whilst at the same time facing budgetary pressures. Different conceptions of ‘values’ exist, each being accompanied by a set of potential measures ranging from calculative practices (closely linked to established market valuation techniques) – through to holistic assessments that seek to address wider concerns of sustainability.

Aerosol pollution and its potential impacts on outdoor human thermal sensation: East Asian perspectives

Submitted by Stavros Stagakis on June 20, 2018 - 12:20pm
Aerosols affect the insolation at ground and thus the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, a measure of aerosol pollution) plays an important role on the variation of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) at locations with different aerosol climatology. The aerosol effects upon PET were studied for the first time at four East Asian cities by coupling a radiative transfer model and a human thermal comfort model which were previously well evaluated. Evident with the MODIS and AERONET AOD observations, the aerosol pollution at Beijing and Seoul was higher than at Chiayi (Taiwan) and Hong Kong.